CO$_2$ in freshwaters is highly variable when compared to marine systems, and it is expected that many freshwater fishes are adapted to short periods of high CO$_2$. In collaboration with Drs. Cory Suski and Caleb Hasler, we have published on the effects of CO$_2$ on fishes and invertebrates. Current lines of inquiry involve using macroscale and long-term water quality data sets to calculate historic and current levels of CO$_2$ in US flowing waters.
C.T. Hasler, C.M. Woodley, E.V. Schneider, B.K. Hixson, C.J. Fowler, S.R. Midway, C.D. Suski, D.L. Smith (2018). Avoidance of carbon dioxide in flowing water by bighead carp. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 76(6):961–969.
C.T. Hasler, S.R. Midway, J.D. Jeffrey, J.A. Tix, C. Sullivan, C. Suski (2016). Exposure to elevated pCO$_2$ alters post-treatment diel movement patterns of largemouth bass over short time scales. Freshwater Biology 61(9):1590–1600.